Last update: 2018-01-01
Production volume (FAO)
Zambia produced over 273,000 metric tons of Wheat in 2014. This is an increase in production of nearly 36% from the previous year.
National yield averages for Zambian wheat reached 71,500 hectograms per hectare in 2014. This is almost double the global average at 33,000 hg/ha.
Region(s) of production
Production mainly occurs in the Central Province (49.5%), Lusaka (24%), the Copper Belt (14.3%), and the Southern Province (12.1%).
- Zambia Data Portal. “Agriculture Statistics” 2014. Knoema. http://zambia.opendataforafrica.org//ionawve/agriculture-statistics?tsId=1000290.
Export volume and major markets (FAO)
The most recent statistics reveal that Zambia exported just under 2,000 metric tons of Wheat in 2013. Virtually all of Wheat exports are sold to Zimbabwe.
Import volume and major markets (FAO)
Zambia imported a minimal amount of wheat in 2013.
Zambian Wheat is produced mostly on large mechanized commercial farms. The National Union for Small Scale Farmers of Zambia (NUSFAZ) has made a push to incentivize small scale farmers to participate in the national export market.
Eroarome Martin Aregheore; Food and Agricultre Organization. "Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles: Zambia". Accessed September 26, 2017. http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/agpc/doc/counprof/zambia/zambia.htm#_Toc131995461
Times of Zambia. 2015. "Promote Wheat Production." http://www.times.co.zm/?p=54061
Commodity Disruption of Ecosystem Services
According to the Water Risk Filter developed by WWF, wheat production areas in Zambia experience a relatively low physical water risk. Overlap occurs on drought prone areas (Lusaka, Central Province, and Southern Province), is a moderate threat to biodiversity, and little access to drinking water and sanitation.
- The Water Risk Filter. World Wildlife Fund. http://waterriskfilter.panda.org/
Disruption of Community Resource Access
While Wheat production is the not the main driver for high deforestation rates in Zambia, regulation of water flow and hydropower is said to be damaged when forests are cleared. 60% of Zambians live below the international poverty line. This fuels land clearing practices as citizens look to charcoal collection and crop cultivation as a means for livelihood; and, ultimately degrades soils of precious nutrients.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2017. "Groundbreaking land use survey to support reversal of deforestation in Zambia." http://www.fao.org/forestry/news/93119/en/
Extent of in-country processing
There are a small handful of milling companies and locations in Zambia. Most milling is for national consumption (export of wheat is less than 1% of Zambian production). Small scale producers sell directly to millers; whereas large scale production typically have their own milling operations.
Agrivision. 2012. "A Staple Food Producer in Zambia." https://www.norfund.no/getfile.php/134001/Dokumenter/Agrivision%20case%20study%20%28ID%20227662%29.pdf
- Meas Consultancy and Training Services, Ltd. (Feb. 2011). Wheat Value Chain Study, Final Report. Commissioned by Agricultural Consultative Forum.
Major uses of commodity
Wheat in Zambia is used mainly for human consumption where, in the milling process, it is ground in to cereals, flour, and feed. Increased rainfall in the 2016-2017 growing season suggests that wheat will be available to sell on the export markets.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2017. "Global Information and Early Warning System | Country Briefs: Zambia." http://www.fao.org/giews/countrybrief/country.jsp?code=ZMB
Commodity-specific regulatory structure
The Seventh National Development Plan 2017 - 2021 of the Ministry of National Development and Planning of Zambia has focused on the agricultural sector to diversify in the economy and direct it away from a reliance on copper and cobalt. An emphasis placed on "value addition through development of complete value chains" across nationally produced agriculture, is outlined in this plan. The plan indicates that it will attempt to increase farmers' income and to increase agricultural outputs. Also, it seeks to gain an advantage in the organics market by promoting a low usage of chemical fertilizer. An national Environmental Council was established per The Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act, with a specific representative from the Ministry that is responsible for agriculture.
Ministry of National Development Planning. 2017. "Seventh National Development Plan | 2017 - 2021." https://www.lusakatimes.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Final-7NDP-07-06-17.pdf
Convention on Biological Diversity. "National CHM for the Republic of Zambia." http://zm.chm-cbd.net/implementation/legislation/national-acts-related-environment-qnd-biological/eppca1990/eppca1990_zm.pdf
Commodity Driven Land Acquisition
Zambia has a total of 34 Large Scale Land Acquisition agreements which represents just under 2% (roughly 400,000 hectares) of total agricultural land. Top foreign investors include India, China, and South Africa. Zambia's Ministry of Lands seeks to implement a National Titling Program. A significant portion of Zambians live in informal settlements with little to no documentation regarding land tenure and occupancy certification. Coupled with an expansion of wheat production, Zambia attempts to balance supporting their local economy built upon the foundations of its residents. Also, the government has been accused of grabbing land and either never fully developing it or not holding investors accountable.
Land Matrix. 2016. "Large Scale Land Acquisitions Profile: Zambia." http://landmatrix.org/media/filer_public/91/17/911723b0-14eb-4ff1-b9e5-fdc7967fee35/7714_up_land_matrix_zambia_country_portfolio.pdf
World Bank. 2017. "Land Documentation in Zambia: A Comparison of Approaches and Relevance for the National Land Titling Program."
Presence of Negative Media or Advocacy Attention
Media attention in Zambian wheat production is relatively positive. Most coverage focuses on expansion in the global markets, year to year environmental impacts and climate stresses, and controlling worm infestations.
Certification status (in-country)
The EU Organic Labeling and Global GAP are available for wheat certification standards. Also, the Organic Producers and Processors Association of Zambia (OPPAZ) is a cooperative membership association that ensures quality of product and sustainability of farms.
Organic Producers and Proccessors Association of Zambia. "www.oppaz.org.zm"
Global Gap. Approved Certification Bodies. http://www2.globalgap.org/apprcbs.html?countryid=239&continentid=2&ScopeID=44&SchemeID=124
The Zambian Agricultural Commodity Exchange (ZAMACE) trading platforms seeks to reduce price manipulations and suspicions in the food value chain. The Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives of Zambia also oversees import and export trade.
Zambian Agricultural Commodity Exchange. http://www.zamace.co.zm/
U.S. AID. 2009. "Staple Foods Value Chain Analysis | Country Report - Zambia." http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnadw640.pdf
Some key stakeholders in Zambia wheat include: The Grain Traders Association of Zambia, ZAMACE, the EU Organic labeling and GLOBALG.A.P. certification, as well as the Organic Producers and Processors Association of Zambia (OPPAZ) which promotes certifications for producers of organic products.,, Zambeef is one of the biggest producers of wheat in Zambia.