Report
Last update: 2018-01-01

china rapeseed

67
20
Presence of High or unique terrestrial biodiversity

Risk overview

Labor and Working Conditions
Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Natural Resource Management

Commodity Overview

Production volume (FAO)


China produced nearly 15 million tons of Rapeseed in 2014; an increase of over 2% from the previous year.

References

  • FAOSTAT http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx.

Average Yield


Average yield of rapeseed in 2014 was 19 thousand hectograms per hectare. This is lower than the global average at just over 20 thousand hectograms per hectare.

References

  • FAOSTAT http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx.

Region(s) of production


The three main growing provinces of rapeseed in China are the Hubei province, Sichuan province, and Hunan province, which contribute to over 47% of national production.

References

  • Statista. 2015. "Rapeseed Production in China in 2015, by Region." https://www.statista.com/statistics/242771/rapeseed-production-in-china-by-region/

Export volume and major markets (FAO)


In 2013, China exported just over 160 tons of rapeseed, over 17 thousand tons of rapeseed oil, and nearly 73 thousand tons of rapeseed cake. Major export markets include CanadaKorea, JapanThailand, and Vietnam.

References

  • FAOSTAT http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx.

Import volume and major markets (FAO)


China imported over 5 million tons of Rapeseed product in 2013. The largest import markets include Canada, Australia, the United Arab EmiratesGermany, and the Netherlands.

References

  • FAOSTAT http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx.

Production systems


Total planted area was estimated at over 7 million hectares in the 2015-2016 season. Production and crop management has historically been very expensive, labor intensive, and has a low level of mechanization due to inefficiencies. A rise in the usage of modern tools and a pressure to keep up with global demand has increased Chinese rapeseed outputs. Cultivation occurs on small privately owned farms that are less than half a hectare.

References

  • Hu, Qiong, Wei Hua, Yan Yin, Xuekun Zhang, Lijiang Liu, Jiaqin Shi, Yongguo Zhao, Lu Qin, Chang Chen, and Hanzhong Wang. 2017. “Rapeseed Research and Production in China.” The Crop Journal, Advances in Crop Science: Innovation and Sustainability, 5 (2):127–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cj.2016.06.005.
  • Bonjean, Alain P., Céline Dequidt, and Tina Sang. 2016. “Rapeseed in China.” OCL 23 (6):D605. https://doi.org/10.1051/ocl/2016045.
  • HU, Xiangdong and Yelto Zimmer. Farm economics behind the evolution of Chinese rapeseed production. International Journal of Agricultural Management. 2:1. 2012. http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/159247/2/49_Zimmer.pdf

Commodity Disruption of Ecosystem Services


There is limited evidence linking Chinese rapeseed production with a disruption in ecosystem services. More pests are becoming common in certain regions of production, possibly due to climate change, and pesticide spending has increased; causing rapeseed to be uneconomic for some growers. This uptick in agrochemical usage can lead to increased runoff in to important rivers like the Yangtze, which is threatened by eutrophication from agricultural inputs.

References

  • Chinadialogue. 2014. "China’s declining crop diversity threatens its food sovereignty," https://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/6872-China-s-declining-crop-diversity-threatens-its-food-sovereignty

  • “Threat of Pollution in the Yangtze.” 2015. http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/freshwater_problems/river_decline/10_rivers_risk/yangtze/yangtze_threats/.

Disruption of Community Resource Access


There is limited research to suggest that rapeseed production has a caused disruptions in community resource access. However, with an expansion of harvest area during the period between 2010-2014, it is possible that increased agrochemical runoff has tainted drinking water sources.

References

  • FAOSTAT http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx.

Extent of in-country processing


There are reports that indicate a surge for in-country rapeseed crushing in to Canola oil. Soybean crushing facilities are being switched over to accommodate rapeseed and a few new locations are planned for construction. Current crushing capacity in China is estimated above 40 million megatons per year.

References

  • The Western Producer. 2017. "China's Canola Demand May Rise." http://www.producer.com/2017/05/chinas-canola-demand-may-rise/

  • USDA. 2016. "China | Oilseeds and Products Annual | GAINS Report." https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Oilseeds%20and%20Products%20Annual_Beijing_China%20-%20Peoples%20Republic%20of_3-29-2016.pdf

Major uses of commodity


Rapeseed is primarily used to create Canola oil which is used in cooking. Also, there is evidence that rapeseed can be converted in to a bio-fuel.

References

  • Alain. P.  Bonjean, Céline  Dequidt, Tina  Sang, Groupe Limagrain. 2016. "Rapeseed in China." Oilseeds & fat Crops and Lipids (23) 6. https://doi.org/10.1051/ocl/2016045

  • Pfister, Kai F., Sabrina Baader, Mathias Baader, Silvia Berndt, and Lukas J. Goossen. 2017. “Biofuel by Isomerizing Metathesis of Rapeseed Oil Esters with (Bio)Ethylene for Use in Contemporary Diesel Engines.” Science Advances 3 (6). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1602624.

Commodity-specific regulatory structure


There is a Regulations on Safety and Agricultural GMOs and an Implementation Regulations on Safety Assessment of Agricultural GMOs that assesses dangers and potential risks posed by GMOs to humans. There is also a National Biosafety Committee of Agricultural GMOs (NBC) which is compliant to the Ministry of Agriculture.

References

  • FAO. 2016. "Food Safety and Quality." http://www.fao.org/food/food-safety-quality/gm-foods-platform/browse-information-by/country/country-page/en/?cty=CHN

Commodity Driven Land Acquisition


While there is no evidence that China is acquiring more land for rapeseed production within its own borders, there certainly are reports that they seek to protect their food supply by buying land in Africa and South America.

References

  • Climate News Network. 2016. "Food Supply Fears Spark China Land Grab." http://climatenewsnetwork.net/food-supply-china-land-grab/

Presence of Negative Media or Advocacy Attention


There are no direct reports of negative media attention or special advocacy for rapeseed production in China. The government however has stopped subsidies and price support in 2016. Imports of rapeseed is restricted to only provinces that do no produce the commodity.

References

  • USDA. 2016. "China | Oilseeds and Products Annual | GAINS Report." https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Oilseeds%20and%20Products%20Annual_Beijing_China%20-%20Peoples%20Republic%20of_3-29-2016.pdf

Certification status (in-country)


Certification of rapeseed happens at a national level through the Center for Quality Supervision and Inspection of Oil and Products of the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture. Also, there is the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection, and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China.

References

  • USDA. 2016. "China | Oilseeds and Products Annual | GAINS Report." https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Oilseeds%20and%20Products%20Annual_Beijing_China%20-%20Peoples%20Republic%20of_3-29-2016.pdf

Traceability


Chinese farmers tend to use more agrochemicals in production than most countries and therefore China has launched a Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) program to promote the use of organic fertilizers. While there is not a standard traceability model currently in place, a call of action from the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CCCPC) has stated that a service platform be implemented for supervision of food safety and liability insurances.

References

  • USDA. 2017. "China | China's Annual Agricutlural Policy Goals | The 2017 No. 1 Document of the CCCPC and the State Council." https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/China%27s%202017%20Agricultural%20Policy%20Goals_Beijing_China%20-%20Peoples%20Republic%20of_2-15-2017.pdf

Stakeholders


Stakeholders include a few of the largest producers of edible oils in China, Wilmar, Bunge, and COFCO; and, regulatory agencies such as the National Biosafety Committee of Agricultural GMOs (NBC) through the Ministry of Agriculture.

References